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Evolution

The last species before Humans

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Australopithecus Ramidus
Australopithecus anamensis, Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus aethiopicus, Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei (was Zinjanthrop
The last species before Humans
The Big Bang Theorie
Vacation Photo Album

Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, Homo Sapiens (Archaic), Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis

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neanderthalensis

Neandertal man existed between 150,000 and 35,000 years ago. The average brain size is slightly larger than that of modern humans,  but may be corralated with there bulk. the cranium is longer and lower that normal humans, with a marked bulge at the back of the skull. Like erectus, they had a protruding jaw and receding forehead. The chin was usually weak.

The midfacial area also portrays, a feature that is not found in erectus or sapiens and may be an adaptation to cold. There are other minor anatomical differences from modern humans, the most unusual being some peculiarities of the shoulder blade, and of the pubic bone in the pelvis. Neandertals mostly lived in cold climates, and their body proportions are similar to those of modern cold-adapted people (eskimos), short and solid, with short limbs. Men reached about 168 cm (5'6") in height. Their bones are thick and heavy, and show signs of powerful muscle attachments. Neandertals would have been extraordinarily strong by our standards, and their skeletons show that they endured brutally hard lives. A large number of tools and weapons have been found, more advanced than those of Homo erectus. Neandertals are the first people known to have buried their dead, with the oldest known burial site being about 100,000 years old. Neandertals were found throughout Europe and the Middle East.

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Homo Habilis

Homo habilis, "handy man", was so called because of evidence of tools found with him. Habilis existed between 2.4 and 1.5 million years ago. they are very similar to australopithecines in many ways. The face is still primitive, but it projects less, and the back teeth are smaller, but still considerably larger than in modern humans. There average brain size isconsiderably larger than australopithecines.  The brain shape is also more humanlike. The bulge of Broca's area, is essential for speech, it is visible in habilis brain casts, and indicates it was probably capable of basic speaking. Habilis is said to have been about 127 cm  tall, and about 45 kg  in weight.

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Homo Erectus

Homo erectus existed between 1.8 million and 300,000 years ago. Like habilis, the face has protruding jaws with large molars, no chin, thick brow ridges, and a long low skull.  Some Asian erectus skulls have a sagittal crest. The skeleton is more robust than those of modern humans, implying greater strength. Body proportions vary; the Turkana Boy is tall and slender, like modern humans from the same area, while the few limb bones found of Peking Men indicate a shorter, sturdier build.

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Homo Sapiens (Archiac)

Archaic forms of Homo sapiens first appeared about 500,000 years ago.  The brain size is larger than erectus and smaller than most modern humans, and the skull is more rounded than in erectus. The skeleton and teeth are usually less robust than erectus, but more robust than modern humans. Many Archaic's still have large brow ridges and receding foreheads and chins. There has been no clear dividing line between late erectus and archaic sapiens, and many fossils between 500,000 and 200,000 years ago are difficult to classify as one or the other. meaning that Archaic's may have been Erectus's.

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